Saturday, May 30, 2009
The Germantown Letters
When I happened on a transcribed collection of Alida Livingston's letters the other day, I had a glimpse into the life of a half-forgotten Livingston woman along with a sorrowful view of the settlement of nearby Germantown.
Alida Schuyler Livingston (1656-1729) and her husband Robert were a well-established and wealthy couple on a 160,000 acre manor when they agreed to let the English crown settle a group of Palatine refugees on their land in 1710. The Palatines were to manufacture naval stores (tar and other pine-based products used to maintain sailing vessels) for England in return for their passage to America. Meanwhile the English government had agreed to pay Livingston for provisioning the Palatines.
Alida and Robert have gone down in history for their role in the abysmal failure of the Palatine settlement. The English government failed to provide adequate provisions or funds, eventually leaving the couple with the choice to feed several hundred people out of their own stores or let them starve.
Alida was supervising the manor on her own in the summer of 1711 when the Palatines truly began to feel the lack of English support. When I began reading the letters, Alida's position really swung into focus for me. They paint a picture of a person caught in the worst of positions. Most of the supplies had been marched north when several hundred of the Palatine men were ordered off to join in the French and Indian War. The remaining supplies were being mismanaged. More food had to be purchased for the remaining women and children but news from Robert came that
I see that there's no money; no money [has] come out of England yet, and God knows whether money will turn up there...[There's] no money for the bread that has been supplied, and they [the Palatines] cannot think that I can do it for nothing. --July 23, 1711
Alida did her best to stick to whatever plan they had developed, but the situation quickly went downhill:
July 25, 1711
...They have now bread for 8 days and I will stop. You wrote that I should brew the beer as much as there is and now I will do so.
July 31, 1711
...I have stopped the 28th with bread baking. The Palatines have hard bread and beer from us to go up and the workers and the cooper they torment me. They say they con not live this way...If I had not hidden Kas [the baker] the would have torn him to pieces on Sunday.
July 31, 1711
I have stopped delivering bread to the Palatines...There is a great crying among the wives and children that their men have gone and have no bread or beer. I say I can not help it. They say the know it. They see without money they can not bake.
In just over a week from her husband's letter that there would be no money, the situation had become dire, with threats of violence being made at the baker. With no money forthcoming and hungry families knocking at her door, Alida was stuck between a rock and a hard place.
Stores did arrive finally in November, but the settlement continued to suffer from underfunding. Essentially andonded by the English government, the Palatines were finally freed from their endenture in the fall of 1712. Most left the area to search for opportunities elsewhere, but some 60 families remained on land given by the Livingstons to form the town of present day Germantown.
It's an interesting side note that her letters also contain the mundane details of life in rural New York during the early 18th century. For instance, the July 31st letter includes the note
You have the keys of the rough trunk and of the cashbox. You should look in your chest or in your wigbox or else your son should look in his box for I have put it in.
The idea of lost keys is one that is a little too familiar even in this day and age. Other letters read like a shopping list. Alida asks for an iron, a sadle and bridle, lace, and she has to remind her husband twice to buy shoes for herself and the children before he remembers. She relates the story of a broken kettle and updates him on the whereabouts of two of their grown sons.
The famliar tone of the letters--they preceed the heightened formality of the mid 18th century--makes these letters an interesting window onto Alida's daily lives. Business, shopping, and updates on the children's whereabouts are side-by-side with the dire picture of the lives of the Palatines. It is a very personal slice of the life of a wealthy New York woman and the many issues which faced her daily.